Section 3    -    Turns and Maneuvers
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-  Thank you Sgt. Koos *Red Baron* for your valuable input while building this page  -

- The Check Ride for this Section will involve the following Types of Turns and Maneuvers -


  -  Fly in Trail 50 Feet behind the Check Ride Aircraft with the Check Rider giving Verbal instructions as to when to turn.


  -  Fly in Trail 50 Feet behind the Check Ride Aircraft without any verbal clues as to when to turn.


  -  Standard Rate Coordinated Turn in Level Flight while following the Check Ride Aircraft in Trail at no more than 1 tenth of a mile


  -  Half Rate Turn Coordinated Turn in Level Flight while following the Check Ride Aircraft in Trail at no more than 1 tenth of a mile


  -  Standard Rate Uncoordinated Turn in Level Flight while following the Check Ride Aircraft in Trail at no more than 1 tenth of a mile


  -  Half Rate Turn Uncoordinated Turn in Level Flight while following the Check Ride Aircraft in Trail at no more than 1 tenth of a mile


  -  Fly a Switch over from Number 3 slot with the Check Ride to the Number 2 Slot and then back to number the number 3 slot again   while maintaining a distance of 100 from the Tail of the Check Ride Aircraft. This is done slightly 'Up and Over' to be sure you miss the      Tail.


  -  Changing Lead - While Leading the Check Ride Aircraft who will be in your number 4 slot, maintain altitude and alter course 45   degrees to port and fly for about 20 seconds, come to the original course and fly for 20 seconds, Change course 45 degrees to   starboard and fly for 20 seconds. As you approach the Lead, alter course to fall in to trail of the Lead about 50 Feet behind his aircraft.


  -  While flying in Trail 50 Feet behind the Check Rider, close your eyes, bank sharply and climb. Count to Three, Open your eyes and   find and reform on the Check Rider.


                                                       Position Numbers


                                                                  1


                                                            3          2


                                                                  4


How to Change the Lead

What is the correct Spacing for the 1, 2,and 3 Positions?


Flying too close to other aircraft in formation is not a quality of a good pilot. It is the sign of a Pilot who is placing himself and other pilots in harms way. Maintain your distance and fly safely.

What is a Standard Rate Turn ?


A Standard Rate Turn turns the Aircraft through

180 Degrees in 1 Minute

and

360 Degrees in 2 Minutes

---------

This holds for any Aircraft at any Speed

while using a coordinated turn (Ball Centered).

---------

Note that the Tip of the Wing (left) and the Needle (right) are both on the Marks for a

Standard Rate Turn


However, there is more to it - The bank angle of the Standard Rate Turn will depend on the Airspeed

The Picture shown is Approximate - Its all about the Time it takes to make the Turn

Full Rate = 2 Minutes


In order to get the approximate bank angle needed for a Standard Rate Turn, divide your airspeed in knots by 10, then add 7. For example if you are flying at 120 knots, then 120/10 + 7 = 19,  therefore a 19 Degree bank angle will give you close to a standard rate turn. At 200 knots, it would be 200/10 + 7 = 27 Degree bank angle. The greater the Speed, the Greater the Required Bank Angle.

At a given airspeed, the same bank angle will result in the same rate of turn, whether you are in a Piper Cub or a Boeing 747 or a B-17

What is a Half Rate Turn ?


Note that the Tip of the Wing (left) and the Needle (right) will be half way between the Level Flight Mark and the Standard Rate Turn mark

---------

A Half Rate Turn turns the Aircraft through

180 Degrees in 2 Minutes

and

360 Degrees in 4 Minutes

---------

This holds true for in any Aircraft at any Speed

using a Coordinated Turn (Ball Centered)


However, there is more to it - The bank angle of the Half Rate Turn will depend on the Airspeed

The Picture shown is Approximate - It is all about the Time it takes to make the Turn

Half Rate = 4 Minutes


In order to get the approximate bank angle needed for a Half Rate Turn, divide your airspeed in knots by 10, then add 7 and divide the result by 2. For example if you are flying at 120 knots, then (120/10 + 7) / 2 = 10,  therefore a 10 Degree bank angle will give you close to a Half Rate Turn. At 200 knots, it would be (200/10 + 7) / 2 = 14 Degree bank angle. The greater the Speed, the Greater the Required Bank Angle.

At a given airspeed, the same bank angle will result in the same rate of turn, whether you are in a Piper Cub or a Boeing 747 or a B-17

B-17G Turn Rate Examples  -  Provided by Captain Bill Lockwood

The following are the bank angles for a 1/2 Standard Rate Turn (180 degree turn in 2 minutes).  In all cases the ball must be centered in your turn and slip indicator, or the turn will not be coordinated and it will not be a 2 minute turn.  The mph are your True Airspeed and not Indicated Airspeed.  If you are in the traffic pattern (1000 feet) at Bassingbourn,  Indicated and True are very close, with True being about 2 mph higher than indicated.


130 mph to 140 mph -   9 Degrees of Bank

145 mph to 155 mph - 10 Degrees of Bank

160 mph to 170 mph - 11 Degrees of Bank

175 mph to 185 mph - 12 Degrees of Bank

190 mph to 200 mph - 13 Degrees of Bank

205 mph to 215 mph - 14 Degrees of Bank

220 mph to 230 mph - 15 Degrees of Bank